A ceramide is a molecule made of essential fats – naturally found in the upper protective layers of the skin, but also infused into serums, masks and moisturizers. Over time, they can help restore your skin’s barrier function, which keeps water in and prevents moisture from escaping out.
The most abundant protein in the human body, collagen makes skin thick, strong and smooth. As we age, our collagen production naturally decreases, causing thinning of the skin, but certain ingredients, such as retinol and peptides can stimulate new production.
Genetics, age, sleeping habits and allergies can all play a role in under-eye discoloration. Retinol, jade rolling, Botox Cosmetic and eye cream can help. Expert tip: When you apply, use only your ring finger (the weakest of the five) and dab product along the orbital bone, avoiding any pulling or tugging. Extra credit: Apply eye cream first, before moisturizer and serum as opposed to after, allowing time for maximum absorption.
Emollients – or moisturizers – are supple, lubricating agents that form a layer over skin. They keep skin hydrated by locking in moisture, either by forming a barrier on the surface of the skin to prevent water evaporation (occlusive emollients) or by attracting and holding moisture in the upper layers of the skin (humectant emollients). There are both synthetic emollients, such as squalene, and natural emollients like lanolin – both unbeatable at reducing dryness.
A Korean skin-care staple, essences are concentrated formulas with a water-like consistency, splashed on post-cleansing to boost hydration and prep skin to absorb subsequent products.